ls Command – UNIX

ls Command UNIX

Description

ls command list all the files and directories.

Most commonly used options with ls commands are:

  • -l
  • -t
  • -r
  • -R
  • -a
  • -h

Options

Following options can be used with the ls command:

-a, –all do not ignore entries starting with “.”. Display’s hidden files
-A, –almost-all do not list implied “.” and “..”
–author print the author of each file
-b, –escape print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
–block-size=SIZE use SIZE-byte blocks
-B, –ignore-backups do not list implied entries ending with “~”
-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime
-C list entries by columns
–color[=WHEN] control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN may be ‘never’, ‘always’, or ‘auto’
-d, –directory list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links
-D, –dired generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode
-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst
-F, –classify append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
–format=WORD across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
–full-time like -l –time-style=full-iso
-g like -l, but do not list owner
-G, –no-group inhibit display of group information
-h, –human-readable print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
–si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, –dereference-command-line follow symbolic links listed on the command line
–dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory
–indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)
-i, –inode print index number of each file
-I, –ignore=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k like –block-size=1K
-l use a long listing format
-L, –dereference when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, –numeric-uid-gid like -l, but list numeric UIDs and GIDs
-N, –literal print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters specially)
-o like -l, but do not list group information
-p, –file-type append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
-q, –hide-control-chars print ? instead of non graphic characters
–show-control-chars show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)
-Q, –quote-name enclose entry names in double quotes
–quoting-style=WORD use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,shell-always, c, escape
-r, –reverse reverse order while sorting
-R, –recursive list subdirectories recursively
-s, –size print size of each file, in blocks
-S sort by file size
–sort=WORD extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v
status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u
–time=WORD show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access,use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if –sort=time
-t sort by modification time
-T, –tabsize=COLS assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time
-U do not sort; list entries in directory order
-v sort by version
-w, –width=COLS assume screen width instead of current value
-x list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X sort alphabetically by entry extension

Examples

Example 1:

To check all hidden files in a directory.

$ ls
$

$ ls -a
. .. .hidden

Example 2:

To check the list of files and directory.

$ ls -la
total 16
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 May 10 06:40 .
dr-xr-x—. 28 root root 4096 May 10 06:38 ..
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 10 06:40 epw
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 46 May 10 06:38 .hidden

Example 3:

To check list of all files in a directory and it’s sub-directory.

$ ls -lRa
total 16
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 May 10 06:40 .
dr-xr-x—. 28 root root 4096 May 10 06:38 ..
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 10 06:40 epw
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 46 May 10 06:38 .hidden
./epw:
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 10 06:43 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 May 10 06:40 ..
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 133 May 10 06:43 readme.txt

Example 4:

To check list of all files in other directory.

$ ls -l epw/
total 12
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 133 May 10 06:43 readme.txt